Speech Recognition Technology and Medical Transcription Services

:An Overview:

Speech is now not confined solely to the human race, or even living beings on a broader perspective. It has extended to the World of Technology; specifically Computers and Software. Speech Recognition Technology [SRT], little known until recent times, is an area that has been constantly growing over the years. SRT has opened new windows of panoramic dimensions to human kind.

Speech Recognition Technology – Defined:

A technology wherein a machine or program identifies spoken words and phrases and converts them to readable format. In more simpler terms, voice/speech is converted to text format.

The Beginning:

Speech Recognition Technology, as we know it today, did not just bloom overnight. It is the work of over 30 years. The very first implementation of Speech Recognition was designed and displayed by IBM during the 1964 New York World’s Fair. It was called the IBM Shoebox; and typically sized too. This device only recognized spoken digits from 0 to 9. Over the years, Software companies have delved upon the benefits and the profits that can be reaped from developing SRT, and they have come a long way since. Now many noted companies have come up with different versions of this technology, offering various features.
While Speech Recognition has progressed vastly, the downside is that it has been a long and laborious road this far. It calls for training and updating of Software to work flawlessly; and it is currently far from perfect. There is so much more to go before it can be said that SRT is without any imperfections.

Speech Recognition Technology – In Health Care and Medical Transcription:

An area where this technology has caught on to a great extent is the Medical Transcription Industry. Speech Recognition is of two types: Front End and Back End.

  • Front End: As the doctor dictates into the machine, the words are automatically generated and displayed. This text can be edited directly, the report finalized, and signed by the doctor immediately. But there are few Front end users due to time constraints faced by doctors and practitioners.
  • Back End: Also called Delayed or Deferred Speech Recognition. The written draft is generated by the Software and sent to the Medical Transcriptionists for editing and proof reading. This is more convenient for doctors as it requires less time spent reading the proofs.
  • EMR: Speech Recognition can be applied in Electronic Medical Record systems of hospitals, clinics, etc. Searches, queries, and even filling up of forms can be made simpler and faster with voice rather than using the keyboard.

Advantages:

Speech Recognition Technology can be advantageous to both Medical Transcriptionists as well as doctors in a number of ways. A few advantages are:

  • There is not much typing involved as the first draft is generated by the software
  • Requires only editing of the machine-generated text
  • Faster turnaround of reports
  • Saves time in completion of reports
  • Stat reports can be completed and returned quicker than by using the conventional method of typing

Drawbacks:

Being a technology that has not entirely been perfected, SRT has a few drawbacks.

  • It cannot fully distinguish words spoken with heavy accents
  • Homophones (words which sound the same but may have different spellings and meanings) can cause spelling errors
  • Incorrect grammar is bound to occur in the generated texts
  • Punctuation rules are not likely to be followed at all times
  • Multiple speakers cannot be clearly differentiated
  • Background noise and disturbances may cause misspellings

Question of the Hour:

A niggling thought in the minds of many Medical Transcriptionists is whether Speech Recognition Technology poses a threat to their livelihood. This is a baseless fear, keeping in mind the drawbacks of SRT. No report will be complete until a human eye has scanned it. Machine-generated documents can only be 60%-70% error-free. It demands well-trained and professional Medical Transcriptionists to read through and edit the reports. A mistake, even a tiny one, can result in unpleasant situations for many. And one cannot rely on mere machines to do the job 100% without errors. In conclusion, Speech Recognition Technology is certainly one of a kind. While it has not yet reached the peak of perfection, it is still quite an aid to the healthcare industry, specifically Medical Transcription. And there is certainly no danger of software or machines or even technology entirely taking over man’s work; technology is just merely helping out!

Lifestyle and Career Disruptions by Technology

We live in an era of unusual disruption of cultures, lives and businesses by technologies. As a little boy, I listened to folklore under the moonlight in my south eastern part of Nigerian village. The elders told the stories of justice, bravery, honor and humanity. There was no cellphone and there was no distraction. Life was under a predictable pattern especially in the evenings when boys and girls will wait in turns to play under the moonlight and receive moral education carefully orchestrated in the stories told by the elders. Every child belongs to the village and parents are nothing but stewards.

As we trekked miles to fetch water and firewood for the family cooking, we enjoyed the songs of the happy birds. We treasured the flowers and the gentle winds out of the thick rainforest of our stream. It was a life of great tranquility and we never had a homicide in the village. By norms and traditions, the fishes in our stream must not be fished. They were preserved and in most cases we played with them.

When it was time for school, we continued on that village tradition of brotherhood. The elders have mapped out lands in the village where people could go and plant fruits so that any villager when hungry could go there and eat. It was forbidden to sell anything from that land because it was designed to be a ‘strategic food reserve’. It worked; I planted an orange tree and my best friend gave the village a coconut tree.

But that was then. Many things have since changed, not just in my village, but around the world. Technology is disrupting all aspects of human existence and our lifestyles have changed. Industries are being demised and new ones are coming up with our lexicons constantly evolving to accommodate new tech-evolutions.

Food has been professionalized and mamas do not need to know how to cook. Technology and globalization have already changed family traditions.

As a boy, I heard of professional typists. These were specially trained pros who could churn out characters on typewriters at amazing speed. There are few of them today. There were shorthand experts; people that could write on special characters in order to capture statements as fast as they are spoken by their employers.

Many of these professions have since gone or are going. Technology is displacing their services. Computers make mastering of typing not a big deal since it does not cost anything to edit and delete when using word processors. Compare that with erasing and changing stencils in a typewriter, you will appreciate the level of innovation that has taken place. A single mistake in page could render the whole document useless; the typist has to start over, especially in quality documents where erasure is not permitted. So the trade was to get people that could type with zero error, and at fast speed.

For those that are shorthand experts, video recorders with translation capability make it unnecessary to be writing when a politician or anyone is talking. Just record and soon print out the transcripts. Those experts are also fading. It is rare to see a journalist job that requires mastering of shorthand as Isaac Pitman invented it.

Have you noticed that the city of London could police the whole city through video cameras when in the old dull days, policemen might have been used? Those traffic policemen we used to see across many African cities are disappearing as most of the cities install traffic light systems. Those jobs or careers are being displayed by technology.

What of language interpreters? I recall a meeting in Kenya where someone was giving a speech in French and the interpreters were interpreting in English, Arabic and Portuguese. It worked out so well. But that career will soon die. If Apple or any of the Smartphone makers develop a good language translator in their gizmos, we may not need the interpreters, at least, in some gatherings.

So, we have got a lot of challenges in career planning these days. Does it make sense to pursue this career considering how technology could change it in the future? How many ticket masters were displaced when airplane ticketing moved online? How can software affect journalism in the future? How is technology affecting parenting since technology is increasingly displacing our attention to our families? Those late night emails and constant trips to the Blackberries at 10pm are all disruptions.

Planning for careers is not just focusing on what happens today or maybe in two years time. You must have a feel of where technology is going and then anticipate and stay ahead in your career. A business model to open physical bookshops may not be a good idea since most people rarely care to know the bookshop around their neighborhood these days. The first point is order from ebay, Amazon or BN. The local bookstore is model already endangered. The same goes with building cinema halls. In the next ten years, we will have virtual cinema halls where movie releases will be done online without the need of going to that physical location.

The interesting thing about this technology disruption on careers is that it does not matter what your level of education is. It could be that your industry is booming but has moved out of your locality. That brings the degree to which your field is outsourced. The easier your job can be automated by technology, the higher is the risk of technology displacement.

So when people discuss about career planning, it is very imperative that you understand how technology and not just wages could play out in the future. If you specialize in a special type of engine design and from all trends, it is evident that that engine is going to be obsolete and you refuse to adapt and be retrained, you could be in trouble. Ask the expert photographers that made fortune washing and developing films in dark rooms. Those that failed to move to digital photography are only in history books.

Our world has been made better by technology because it improves our productivity and standard of living. However, it also carries a major challenge; disrupting careers and moving many jobs to museums. It is very important you stay ahead and see how new technologies could disrupt and displace your job. Never wait, plan ahead and stay above technology innovation with new skills.

Technology Implementation in Business and Life and How Important It Is

Technology is the buzz word today. Almost everything we do, use, or consume is processed through some kind of technology. Computers and Internet has changed the face of modern society. Still there are people who are resistant to get themselves adapted, to latest technologies. They are so much involved into the affairs of their business, that they feel getting updated with technical stuff is not going to help them anyways. They feel it is a waste of time. I Am going to share a real life story to highlight, why it is so significant to cope with technology in the modern society.

My father has a trading business, which is doing good. However couple of years back all his accounting and office work was done 100% manually. He was comfortable with it as he was simply unaware of the magic of computers. He was also resistant to get systems and learn them, as he found to it be a waste of time and money.

When I stepped in, I realised that the work for which my father and other employee’s were investing their day and night, is actually not more than couple of hours work with the help of computers. I somehow convinced him to get me some IT stuff like laptops, printers, scanners and specially Internet in the office premises. He was reluctant but I had to hold on to my demands. When I got them a year passed by with no significant implementation of IT in the office. But I learnt lot about how things work in real life and in software applications.

Slowly but steadily I started to automate the office tasks. I automated accounting. After a lot of issues and reluctance from employees, things started to appear in perspective. Almost 80% of the accounting work was simply eliminated. There was no need to manually reconcile financial statements, no balance sheet preparation or different types reports. We dropped one of the employees as accounting became a piece of cake. We started saving hundreds of dollars right from the start. My father became so much relaxed which he never thought he would. He Could now work on more important things in life. Slowly he automated all other aspects such as attendance management, payroll etc. Couple of months later the profits were all time high and there was very less work to do in the Offtime. Now when he looks into the past, it seems unimaginable for him to work the way he used to. He is now a successful entrepreneur with good health. His working hours are 10 to 7 and takes off whenever he feels he needs one, which is very good considering he is a sole proprietor of the firm.

Implementing technology may seem a costly affair and will attract reluctance from the employees. However if successfully implemented technology can turn your firm around and bring out the true potential of your business.

From business to home, from daily life issues to entertainment, technology has a tremendous potential. However first one needs to invest time, to understand things and then use technology effectively for a better and more comfortable life.

Commercialisation Of Technology Key Issues To Remember

1) Universities or other private and public institutions regularly undertake research on various areas. Very often the research has as its ultimate goal commercialization, profit-making and winning competition. Research may be commercialised in two ways: (i) New companies are created which are provided with access to the intellectual property rights (IPR), facilities or assets of one party; (ii) Technology may be made available to existing companies. Typically, this would involve the commercial licensing of research work directly to industry, for example, to large pharmaceutical or medical companies.

2) For a collaboration to take place there needs to be an agreement between the parties in place clearly setting out the contributions of each party and of course the rewards should the technology be proved successful. This is achieved by entering into a Technology Transfer Agreement, which addresses the following:

1. Nature of the IPR involved/transferred
Define exactly what rights are to be transferred.

2. Method of the transfer
The next most fundamental issue to be resolved is the method by which the IPR will be transferred from one or more parties, that is, by assignment or licence.

a. Assignment
An outright assignment gives the assignee greater freedom in relation to the technology, since in a typical assignment, there are few, if any, controls placed on the assignee by the assignor. In the event of insolvency, the assignee has an asset that can be sold to create value for the shareholders. Of course, if the assignee has become insolvent it may be because there is no market for the product. However, if the product has failed for other reasons, such as lack of marketing support, lack of follow-on funding, or issues affecting customers a willing buyer may exist for the technology. The practical benefit is that it should be easier (or cheaper) to raise funds if the assignee has some form of assets. Investors usually prefer to invest in a company which owns and has freedom to use all of its assets. If an outright assignment is not possible, this can also be achieved with an exclusive licence.

b. Licences
A licence gives the parties a greater feeling of control and also an ability to participate in any successful commercialisation of the technology through royalty streams, as well as being able to participate in any growth of the spin-out business as a shareholder. A licence also ensures greater flexibility for the party; it may be possible to provide that the licence terminates if certain conditions are fulfilled (for example, if the licensee fails to exploit or to exploit successfully the transferred technology). The licensor then has the option to take back the licence and perhaps proceed with a new licensee.

A compromise worth considering is a licence with an assignment trigger built in. The trigger can be linked to the value of the licensee, the return to the licensor(s), or to some other factor. In this way the licensor(s) are protected at a time when the spin-out is most vulnerable and, from the licensee’s point of view, should it succeed, it is very likely that it will end up owning the technology outright.

In other scenarios, the licensee can be expected to agree to certain performance criteria. These will often be linked to the number of sales or revenue generated from sales or other commercial exploitation of the licensed technology. Failure to meet the criteria will see the licence come to an end or for the licence to become non-exclusive instead.

3. Consideration
The consideration for the transfer of technology can be made up of equity, up-front payments, royalties, or a mixture of all three. This tends to be an area which is most heavily influenced by policies adopted from time to time by the various parties to the agreement. Other factors may affect the value, for example, where one or more of the contributors to the technology was not an employee, but for example, a post-graduate student or consultant. In fact, a post-graduate student will generally fall outside the definition of “employee” under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, and so the IPR may not belong to the university.

4. Other rights and obligations
Whatever the nature of the IPR transfer, the parties need to agree what continuing rights (if any) the parties will have to use the IPR. If a party is a university it is generally agreed that the university can continue to carry out non-commercial research and teaching using the transferred technology. However, it is worth investigating whether there are existing research projects, such as PhD theses, which need to be completed. If so, specific rights should be carved out of the transfer agreement as necessary to ensure that these projects can be completed. Also it is important to have a clear agreement as to which party will bear and be responsible for: (i) any prosecution and other protection of the transferred rights costs (for example prosecution of patent applications so that they become patents granted!) and (ii) any regulatory licences and approvals.

5. IPR Infringements
The key question to be addressed is which party will have primary responsibility for dealing with any IPR infringement of the transferred technology. It is important for the spin-out company/licensee to ensure that it has the appropriate rights to take action against a third party which is infringing the transferred technology in some way.

The Impact of Technology on Business Environment and Society!

The tremendous technological growth that we have been experiencing is made possible through extensive programmes of technological research being conducted by many types of researchers working within universities, business, and non-profit research organizations. Technological developments are strong and all pervasive forces of the business environment. Technology is the scientific knowledge to practical problems.

Technology feeds on itself and it affects business in two major ways:

  1. Through its impact on society in general
  2. Through its direct influence on business operations and activities.

Technology affects society. In fact, we feel its effect on our everyday life. It affects economic growth, our standard of living and our culture. However, some of the effects of technology are highly beneficial and some detrimental. One should be careful that these effects on members of the society in turn affect business practices.

Technology affects our everyday life. We are surrounded by so much of technology, that we take it for granted and usually do not realize how much it affects us until we have to do without electricity, water, transport or telephone. Technological developments have raised the standard of living. In spite of inflationary pressure and considerably a high degree of unemployment, generally families eat better, wear a wider variety of clothing, and live in more comfortable homes.

Technology also influences basic aspects of our culture, including religion, education, mobility, health care, art, language, laws and their enforcement. For example, technological advances in health care allow physicians to treat their patients in a virtual environment through video conferencing, which again is helpful in legal environment too for the judges to proceed with investigations on hard core criminals, who need not be produced before the court for security reasons.

Every new technology is a force involved in creative destruction. Say, television hurts movies, synthetic fibres, rival for cotton fibre. The discovery of new technology even sometimes affects economic growth-TV with its high entertainment value takes away productive hours of mankind. Each new technology creates major long term consequences, that are not always foreseeable. How do you justify nations spending more money to develop missiles, nuclear weapons and bombs for the sake of security?

Developing nations have to buy technology from foreign countries, as they are not resourceful in terms of capital needed for Research and Development, expertise, patents, licenses, equipments and so on. This transfer of technology involves huge costs as a result of which a vicious circle is formed, in which weak technology creates dependence and dependence creates weakness.

The recent trend can be enumerated through this slogan, “Conserve, reduce and recycle”. The stress today is on clean production measures, advanced robotics, zero-emition vehicles, material recycling and alternative fuels and materials. This change towards love for environment by the technologists is a sure sign of positive development.

A Comparative Analysis of Smart Home Automation Technologies in the UAE

The Smart Home Automation industry in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has been growing at a rapid pace since its dawn over the last several years. The market is becoming more and more aware of the capabilities of having a complete automation system whether at the scale of individual residences, palaces, real estate developments, and hotels. Many developments in Dubai and Abu Dhabi have already been completed with a pre-installed automation system. Many developments in areas like Victory Heights, Arabian Ranches, Sports City, and Reem Island have also been built with infrastructure to support such technologies in the future.

In basic form, automation includes systems that control Lighting, Appliances, HVAC, Curtains and Multimedia. The market in the UAE has not only begun to realize the benefits in terms of comfort, security, and luxury. But also in terms of energy saving and increasing property value, thus all these realizations will continue to lead to a booming market in the UAE.

As automation is somewhat of a new technology in the mainstream market, one must be aware of the countless number of underlying technologies that connect and allow for the communication between a user and the Light Dimming Systems or Air Conditioning Systems. On the surface, these technologies may seem to lead to the same functionality, but in the back-end, they are different in potentially catastrophic ways. This leads us to the reason why we started composing this article, that is, to shed light onto the pros and cons of the different technologies (regardless of product or vendor) which are available in the UAE market today.

Any automation system is composed of 2 high-level components, the controller, and the modules. The modules include light dimmers, relay switches, thermostats, motorized curtain control systems, distributed speakers..etc. which are to be controlled by the home owner. The controller, is the heart of the system from which signals are sent to “Dim the lights” or “turn on the air conditioning”. The method of communication between the controller and the modules are the Automation Communication Technology which we wish to address in this article. The method of communication can either be through wires or wireless and are usually in line with certain protocols or standards of communication. This article will explore and compare KNX, X10, Zigbee, En-Ocean, and Z-wave.

The criteria for comparison which we will explore are the following:

  1. Reliability of Communication: How reliable is the communication between the Controller and the Modules? When a message is sent to a module, the system must ensure the message’s arrival and confirmation of receipt. Scoring well in this criteria is very important to ensure that even under circumstances of wired or wireless interference messages are resent until confirmed by the receiving module. Not all protocols comply with this requirement.
  2. Security of Communication: The protocol must guarantee that a 3rd party cannot infiltrate an existing system and operate it with unauthorized access. The results of a hacker entering a parking lot of a hotel and turning all its lights off is disastrous.
  3. Price
  4. Features and Capabilities: It is important that automation technologies go beyond just controlling individual modules and have the capability to integrate with other systems most typically entertainment since that is an area of high usage of any home owner. Example: Easy Integration with Multi-room Music Systems, Multi-room multimedia distribution systems (Movies, Videos, Pictures, Music)…etc.
  5. Investment Protection: It is important to make sure that installed Controller or Modules can be easily replaced in the future. Consider having installed a system that has some components fail after 5 years, and at the same time, the company which installed it became bankrupt. The home owner would be left with no choice but to completely revamp the entire electrical system in the residence which would cost more in time, labor, and equipment that what was originally paid for the automation system. Having a system that is standardized means that any other company can support it or replace certain parts with different products, maybe from different vendors, in order to ensure continued operation.
  6. Interoperability: This criteria refers to the capability of the Controller to speak to multiple Modules from different manufacturers. This will ensure that a system is made up with Lighting, HVAC, Curtains, Appliances, and Multimedia Control Modules are purchased from different manufacturers which are the best or most specialized in those fields. This ensures that a system has the best-in class Modules for each particular purpose. It is not logical that the best manufacturer of light dimmers is also the best manufacturer of curtain control systems, or audio systems. Some communication protocols are closed or proprietary, thus forcing the customer to purchase everything from a single manufacturer. This criteria also overlaps with the Investment Protection Criteria since having an interoperable system will give future flexibility to easily replace Modules even if the company which installed them has closed down.

The remainder of this document will address each communication technology based on the above criteria.

KNX

KNX is an international standard of communication typically installed in wired twisted pair environments. KNX was designed in 1990 and was made as a very robust protocol to be used in industrial automation applications. The protocols reliability cannot be questioned since it implements many OSI communication layers and is quite complex. KNX is also controlled by the KNX association and any company usually spends thousands of dirhams on their employees to go through training in order to understand the inner workings of the system. KNX is a complex protocol by nature, and was designed long before the “smart home” concept was born, thus the hardware that has the capability to support the complexity of KNX is expensive not only to engineer, but also to manufacture and thus the hopes for this technology to become cheaper than its current alternatives is futile.

KNX has and is a popular choice for hotels since 2006 and has been deployed in many developments such as the Shangri-la in Dubai, Rotana Hotels in the Marina, Fairmont, Movenpick to name a few. KNX is also being specified by many real estate consultants for major developments in the Abu Dhabi Reem Island and Yas Island.

  1. Reliability of Communication: Yes
  2. Security of Communication: Yes
  3. Price: No
  4. Features and Capabilities: No. KNX has been more focused at the simple facility of automation and typically fits in hotel environments where customization and multimedia integration is not required.
  5. Investment Protection: Yes
  6. Interoperability: Yes

X10

X10 is an international open standard developed in 1975 by Pico Electronics of Scotland, in order to allow remote control of home devices and appliances. It primarily uses the 220Vpower line wiring for sending messages between the Controller and the Modules (Lighting, HVAC…etc).

X10 has only receyved some popularity many years ago when automation technology started being introduced in the UAE. And was typically installed in small villa project then was slowly discontinued due to its reliability issues.

  1. Reliability of Communication: No. Since it is prone to interference from multiple sources like transformers, motors typically found in TVs, washing machines, fans…etc. Also, messages from Controller to Modules are never acknowledged so there is no 2-way communication.
  2. Security of Communication: No. If a 3rd party can tap into the powerline of a house, messages can easily be sent to control whatever the 3rd party wishes.
  3. Price: Yes
  4. Features and Capabilities: Yes. This technology can easily be integrated into PC based systems and many options are available to provide feature rich capabilities for residential applications.
  5. Investment Protection: Yes
  6. Interoperability: Yes

Zigbee

ZigBee is an open wireless network communication protocol based on the IEEE specification IEEE 802.15.4, which enables the Controller to communicate with its Modules via Radio Frequency. The standard is a development of the ZigBee Alliance, which was founded in the end of 2002. It is an industry alliance of more than 230 enterprises who take up the worldwide development of this technology. The first ZigBee products came on the market in the beginning of 2005. Because Zigbee standardises only the lower protocol layers (radio layer), the different manufacturers have defined their own higher software layers. As a result ZigBee devices of different manufacturers are not compatible with each other.

  1. Reliability of Communication: Yes. A wireless mesh network is created and ensures multiple path routing to every module which translates to long reach, and high reliability in case of interference or even in case of in-path device failure.
  2. Security of Communication: No. Zigbee uses weak hashing algorithms and has been researched to be penetrable. Penetration is not easy but software tools such as “Killerbee” exist and can allow any person with little Linux and scripting experience to hack into an existing Zigbee network.
  3. Price: No
  4. Features and Capabilities: Yes
  5. Investment Protection: Yes
  6. Interoperability: No

En-Ocean

EnOcean is a wireless radio frequency based, energy harvesting technology used primarily in building automation systems. It is not set out for international, European or national standardization; however, EnOcean GmbH is offering its technology and licenses for the patented features under license within the EnOcean Alliance framework. The concept was developed to enable batteryless sensors and switches for building automation. Which is questionable in terms of energy saving because existing alternatives can consume as little as 500W per 60 storey tower in automation devices.

EnOcean based technologies have been installed in some big projects such as the Abu Dhabi Central Market, the Dubai Financial Center…etc.

  1. Reliability of Communication: No, En-Ocean does not offer 2-way communication between the Controller and its Modules. Also the Controller is at a star network with the Modules and there is no wireless meshing, this one-to-one signal mapping can drastically fail in times of high interference.
  2. Security of Communication: Yes
  3. Price: No, En-Ocean prices are more aligned with KNX.
  4. Features and Capabilities: No. Supported but not yet seen in the market.
  5. Investment Protection: Yes
  6. Interoperability: Yes

Z-wave

Among all the above protocols, Z-wave ranks the best so far. The strength of Z-wave lies in the big number of different products from different manufacturers as well as the very robust, 2-way, meshed, and secured wireless communication. Z-wave chips also consume a 10mW at peak and are low cost compared to all other alternatives. Why? because Z-wave has been originally designed for residential applications.

Z-wave is viewed as the next generation of Smart Home Technology and product lines have started to emerge from big players such as Honeywell and Schneider Electric. This technology is not only feature full, reliable and secure, but will be offered at competitive prices and investment protection for projects of any size starting with individual villas all the way to large real estate towers. As of today, Z-wave has been deployed in many villas in the UAE at an individual scale. Z-wave is also starting to make its way through many of the large tenders for developments throughout the Emirates.

  1. Reliability of Communication: Yes
  2. Security of Communication: Yes
  3. Price: Yes
  4. Features and Capabilities: Yes
  5. Investment Protection: Yes
  6. Interoperability: Yes